Michael D. Santoro Michael Santoro, Ph.D., holds the William R. Kenan, Jr. Professorship


William Paterson University, B.A.
Adelphi University, M.B.A.
Rutgers University, M.B.A., Ph.D.

Research Interests

Strategic Alliances
Strategic change
The external sourcing of knowledge and technological innovation

Michael Santoro's expertise and teaching interests are in the area of strategic management and he currently teaches strategic management graduate and undergraduate courses in Lehigh's College of Business & Economics.

Professor Santoro's principal research interests are in the areas of strategic alliances, strategic change, and the external sourcing of knowledge and technological innovation. Santoro has over fifty publications in edited volumes, proceedings, and leading peer-reviewed academic journals including Strategic Management Journal, Organization Science, Research Policy, Journal of Management Studies, California Management Review, Management International Review, Journal of Engineering and Technology Management (JET-M), IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, among others. Santoro served as guest editor for a special issue of the International Journal of Technology Management titled "Organizational Learning from External Sources: New Issues and Performance Implications." He currently serves on the Editorial Review Boards for IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management and the University Industry Innovation Network. Since joining Lehigh, Santoro has received the Carl R. and Ingeborg Beidleman Research Award, the Class of 1961 Professorship, the James T. Kane Faculty Fellowship, the Christian and Mary Lindback Award for Distinguished Teaching, and the Robert and Christine Staub Faculty Excellence Award.

Prior to his academic career, Santoro spent twenty-one years with Automatic Data Processing Inc. (ADP) holding a number of middle and senior line and staff management positions. His two most recent positions were those of Regional Vice President of Operations and Client Relations in ADP's Philadelphia Regional Processing Center and Division Director of Strategic and Product Planning and Product Marketing on ADP's corporate headquarters staff.


  • Santoro, M. & Chakrabarti, A. (1999). Building industry-university research centers: Some strategic considerations. International Journal of Management Reviews, 1, 3, pp 225-244.
  • Santoro, M. (2000). Success breeds success: The linkage between relationship intensity and tangible outcomes in industry-university collaborative ventures. Journal of High Technology Management Research, Vol. 11 (2), pp 255-273.
  • Santoro, M. & Gopalakrishnan, S. (2000). The institutionalization of knowledge transfer activities within industry-university collaborative ventures. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 17, pp 299-319.
  • Santoro, M. & Chakrabarti, A. (2001). Corporate strategic objectives for establishing relationships with university research centers. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 48, No. 2, pp 157-163.
  • Santoro, M. & Gopalakrishnan, S (2001). Relationship dynamics between university research centers and industrial firms: Their impact on technology transfer activities. Journal of Technology Transfer, Vol. 26, No.1, pp 163-171.
  • Santoro, M. & Chakrabarti, A., (2002). Firm size and technology centrality in industry-university interactions. Research Policy, Vol. 31, No. 7, pp 1163-1180.
  • Santoro, M. & Betts, S. (2002). Making industry-university partnerships work. Research-Technology Management, Vol. 45, No. 3, pp 42-46.
  • Santoro, M. & Saparito, P. (2003). The firm's trust in its university partner as a key mediator in advancing knowledge and new technologies. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol 50, No. 3, pp 362-373.
  • Gopalakrishnan, S. & Santoro, M. (2004). Distinguishing between knowledge transfer and technology transfer activities: The role of key organizational factors. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp 57-69.
  • Chakrabarti, A. & Santoro, M. (2004). Building social capital and learning environment in industry-university relationships. International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp 19-36.
  • Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D. & Santoro, M.D. (2004). Developing and managing strategic alliances, building social capital, and creating value. In Ghobadian, A., O'Regan, N., Gallear, D and Viney, H. (eds.), Strategy and Performance: Achieving Competitive Advantage in the Global Market Place, pp. 13-34, Palgrave-Macmillan Publishing, London, UK.
  • Santoro, M.D. (2005). Patent protection. In Hitt, M.A. and Ireland, R.D. (eds.), The Blackwell Encyclopedic Dictionary of Entrepreneurship, pp. 202-204, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK.
  • Santoro, M. & McGill, J. (2005). The effect of uncertainty and asset co-specialization on governance in biotechnology alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 26: 1261-1269.
  • Santoro, M. & Saparito, P. (2006). Self-interest assumption and relational trust in university-industry knowledge transfers. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 53, No. 3, pp. 335-347.
  • Santoro, M. & Bierly, P. (2006). Facilitators of knowledge transfer in university-industry collaborations: A knowledge-based perspective. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 53, No. 4, pp. 495-507.
  • Santoro, M.D., Bierly, P.E. & Gopalakrishnan, S. (2007). Organizational learning from external sources: New issues and performance implications. International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 38, Nos. 1/2, pp. 1-10.
  • Gopalakrishnan, S., Scillitoe, J. & Santoro, M. (2008). Tapping deep pockets: The role of resources and social capital on financial capital acquisition by biotechnology firms in biotech-pharma alliances. Journal of Management Studies. Vol. 45, No. 8, pp. 1354-1376.
  • Bierly, P., Damanpour, F. & Santoro, M.D. (2009). The application of external knowledge: Organizational conditions for exploration and exploitation. Journal of Management Studies. Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. 481-509.
  • McGill, J. & Santoro, M. (2009). Alliance portfolios and patent output: The case of biotechnology alliances. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 56, No. 3: 388-401.
  • Banalieva, E. & Santoro, M.D. (2009). Local, regional, or global? Geographic orientation and relative financial performance of emerging market multinational enterprises. European Management Journal, Vol. 27: 344-355.
  • Jiang, J., Tao, T. and Santoro, M.D. (2010). Alliance portfolio diversity and firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 31, Issue 10, pp. 1136-1144.
  • Stryker, J.B. and Santoro, M.D. (2012). Facilitating face-to-face communication in high-tech teams. Research- Technology Management, 55, Issue 1, pp. 51-56.
  • Banalieva, E., Santoro, M.D. and Jiang, J. (2012). Home region focus and technical efficiency of multinational enterprises: The moderating role of regional integration. Management International Review, Vol. 52, Issue 4, pp. 493-518.
  • Stryker, J.B., Santoro, M.D., Farris, G.F. (2012). Creating collaboration opportunity: Designing the physical workplace to promote high-tech team communication. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 59, Issue 4, pp. 609-620.
  • Santoro, M.D. 2013. Uncertainty, governance alignment, and firm performance in biotechnology alliances. International Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 12, No. 4: 225-248.
  • “The impact of inter-firm managerial social ties on alliance formation and innovation performance”, with Ke Yang and Jianjun Zhu, 2014.
  • Betts, S. & Santoro, M.D. (2014). Champions and Trust as Drivers of Industry/University Collaborations: A Relationship Marketing Perspective. In Kliewe, T., Baaken, T. and Kesting (eds.), Modern Concepts of Organizational Marketing: New Insights into Business-to-Business and Science-to-Business Marketing and its Linkages, Springer-Gabler, Oxford, UK.
  • Tao, T., Jiang, J. & Santoro, M.D. (2015). Expand or Retrench? Alliance portfolio adaptation to environmental jolts. International Journal of Business Environment, Vol.7, No. 1: 79-97.
  • Santoro, M.D. (2014). Organising for knowledge and technology-related outcomes in industry-university relationships. International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation - Special Issue on Industry-University Collaboration. Vol. 13, Nos. 1/2, pp. 33-56.
  • Brown, J., Gianiodis, P. and Santoro, M.D. (2015). Following doctors' orders: Organizational change as a response to human capital bargaining power, Organization Science, Volume 26, Issue 5, September-October, pp. 1284-1300.
  • Scillitoe, J., Gopalakrishnan, S. and Santoro, M.D. (2015). The Impact of External Contexts on Alliance Governance in Biotech-Pharmaceutical Firm Alliances. Organization Management Journal. Volume 12, Issue 3: 110-122.
  • Santoro, M.D. and Gopalakrishnan, S. (2015). Alliances with universities – How firms absorb and apply knowledge. International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies. Volume 6, Issue 2: 175-199.
  • Brown, J., Gianiodis, P. & Santoro, M.D. (forthcoming). Managing co-opetition for shared utility in dynamic environments.  California Management Review.
  • Osiyevskyy, O., Tao, T., Jiang, J. and Santoro, M.D. (2017). Opportunity is in the eye of beholder: Behavioral drivers of alliance portfolio adaptation to performance and environmental jolts. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol. 18, No. 2: 1-37.